By Charles H. Drummond III
This factor encompasses a selection of papers offered on the 72nd convention on Glass difficulties on the Ohio nation college, Columbus, Ohio. issues coated comprise glass melting; refractories; approach regulate; laws protection, and emissions; recycling and batch wetting.Content:
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Extra resources for 72ND CONFERENCE ON GLASS PROBLEMS: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 33
The fastest particle with the minimum residence time is called the 'critical trajectory'. Besides the time, we also calculate the temperature, viscosity and velocity along each trajectory. From this information, the melting index, fining index and mixing index are calculated for each trajectory. The melting index indicates the quality of the melting process along the trajectory: a high value means that the particle resides for a long time in regions with high temperature and low viscosity. The fining index indicates the quality of the fining along the trajectory: a high value means that the particle resides for a long time in regions with a temperature above the typical fining temperature and low viscosity.
2 GJ/ton molten glass from batch with 50 % cullet) and the minimum possible energy consumption is already very small. 6 MJ) and not normalizing to 50 % cullet was an oxygen-fired furnace, 60 % cullet, using on average 3380 MJ energy per ton molten glass. However normalization to 50 % cullet and conversion to primary energy equivalent (including electricity use for oxygen supply) |14| will result in a much higher value for this case: about 4200 MJ/ton. This example shows the importance of such normalization or correction rules, having a large impact on the ranking of the energy efficiencies.
The regenerator surface to volume ratio for the end-fired furnace is much better than that of the cross-fired furnace. Also, the end-fired furnace typically has an aspect ratio that is much shorter and wider than for the cross-fired furnace. As shown in Figure 10, it should be noted that a furnace with a higher pull rate also has a better efficiency. Figure 10 <6' For our comparisons, let us review a typical end-fired furnace or a "U" flame furnace. This comparison furnace will be under port fired using four (4) burners, but of course three (3) or two (2) burners could be used, depending upon the furnace design and the emissions that are allowed.
72ND CONFERENCE ON GLASS PROBLEMS: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 33 by Charles H. Drummond III