By Hein van der Voort
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Extra resources for A grammar of Kwaza
The sociolinguistic situation of the Kwaza Four languages are spoken on a daily basis by all generations of the TubarãoLatundê reserve: Aikanã being the dominant language (± 150 speakers, unclassified), Kwaza (25, unclassified), Latundê (± 20, Northern Nambikwara) and Portuguese (with ±10 monolinguals). There is one person of Salamãi (TupiMondé) origin and two of Kanoê (unclassified) origin who do not speak their languages any more. There is one person of Sabanê (Nambikwara) origin (not counting the population of Veado Preto), and one person of Tawandê (Northern Nambikwara) upbringing who still speaks the language.
The Indians continued to refuse to sign and were physically threatened by the farmers’ gunmen. The ranches and timber companies are owned by rich people from the South of Rondônia, where most of the available rainforest has already disappeared. As nothing was done by local police and politicians to relieve the Indians’ predicament, they turned to the FUNAI and the Conselho Indigenista Missionário26 for help, in the beginning of 1996. Since contemporary documents and eyewitness accounts confirm that the region was the habitat of the Kwaza at the time of contact (Dequech 1942, Lévi-Strauss 1938, Rondon and Faria 1948, van der Voort 1996b, 1997b), it merits the official status as “Indigenous Area”, as granted by the Brazilian constitution.
The sometimes criminal roles that such governmental institutions played in Rondônia, especially at the time of the dictatorship, have been thoroughly documented by amongst others Leonel (1995). 6 1. 000 inhabitants. The majority of the unacculturated Indians of Rondônia live in indigenous reserves. Nevertheless, there are still uncontacted groups in Rondônia (dos Santos 1996). 4. Scientific expeditions In the beginning of the 20th century the first scientific expeditions to Rondônia were organised, during which ethnographic and linguistic observations were made.
A grammar of Kwaza by Hein van der Voort