Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems: An by John H. Holland PDF

By John H. Holland

ISBN-10: 0262581116

ISBN-13: 9780262581110

Stable, in spite of the fact that, the directory didn't say that this article used to be geared for Ph.D.'s in arithmetic.

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Extra info for Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems: An Introductory Analysis with Applications to Biology, Control, and Artificial Intelligence

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Levins in ChangingEnvironments( pp. 6- 7) . The phenotypeis the product of the harmoniousinteractionof all genes " .. geneproduct" in the neededquantity . Thereis extensiveinteraction and at the time whenit is neededin development not only amongthe allelesof a locus, but also betweenloci. The main localeof 32 Illustrations . theseepistaticinteractionsis the developmentalpathway. Natural selectionwill tend to bring togetherthosegenesthat constitutea balancedsystem . " The result of this selectionhas been " " referredto as internal balance .

Iosifescu. Math. Rev. 38, 5, Review5276( 1969 ). For those who have read, or can be induced to read, Dubins and Savage's influential book, this section (which requires special knowledge not essential for subsequentdevelopment) showshow to translate their formulation of the abstract ' gambler s problem to the present framework and vice versa. Briefly, their formulation is basedon a progressionoflortuneslo ,/ I ,/ 2' . . which the gambler attains a by sequenceof gambles. A gamble is naturally given as a probability distribution over the set of all possiblefortunes F.

The object then (following von Neumann 1947) is usually to minimize the maximum Illustrations loss (negative of the payoff) the opponent can impose. It is interesting that often (checkers, chess, go) this minimax strategy is a pure strategy. Thus, although the payoff may vary on successivetrials of the samestrategy, the plan can still restrict its searchto pure strategiesin such cases. In more generalsituations, however, the plan will have to employ stochasticmixtures of pure strategiesand, if it is to exploit its opponents maximally, it will even associateparticular mixtures with particular kinds of opponents (assumingit is supplied with enough information to enable it to identify individual opponents).

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Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems: An Introductory Analysis with Applications to Biology, Control, and Artificial Intelligence by John H. Holland

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