By Don McLeese
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125-126. For his allegedly Afghan identity, see 'Abbas al-'Azzawi, Tarikh a/-'lraq bayna lhtilalayn, Baghdad, 1956,VI,p. 160. 26 WAHHABISM: A CRITICAL ESSAY Mecca for the second time. This occupation of the Haramayn was to last until the end of 1227/1812, a period of six and a half years in which Wahhabi doctrine was imposed on the people of Mecca and Medina and the Wahhabis engaged in their signature activity of dome demolition. In Mecca, the domes over the houses reputed to have been the birthplaces of the Prophet, Khadijat al-Kubra, Imam 'Ali, and Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, were destroyed, and the tombs and mausolea in the historic cemetery of al-Ma'la were levelled to the ground.
Mr. Hempher", it seems, so thoroughly assimilated his role as undercover agent that he used the Hijri calendar in preference to the Christian. Among other clues to the inauthenticity of the work are references to the desirability of encouraging nationalism as a means of sundering Islamic unity-this, at a time when nationalism had barely appeared even in Europe-the advisability of promoting birth control in order to block demographic growth in the Muslim world, and the need to displace Arabic by promoting "local languages such as 38 WAHHABISM: A CRITICAL ESSAY British also graciously saw fit to confer a knighthood on the champion of Wahhabism.
The Wahhabi occupation of the Haramayn forced the Ottomans to act decisively. Their prestige as the guardians of Sunni Islam and heirs to the caliphate was dependent on at least a nominal control of the Haramayn, their actual exercise of authority being frequently contested by the Sharifs of Mecca. "24 Such characterizations are entirely anachronistic: the Wahhabi ideology had nothing to do with nationalism, and it is questionable whether a Saudi nation exists even now. It can in any event be argued that both the first emergence of the Wahhabi-Saudi state in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century and its consolidation and expansion in the twentieth century occurred in a context of European encroachment on the Arab lands and served therefore as a factor of enfeebling division.
Albert Einstein by Don McLeese