By Vishali Gupta, Amod Gupta, Mangat Ram Dogra
The emergence of optical coherence tomography (OCT) strategies has helped to glance through the retina which really is a three- dimensional constitution. The OCT presents a excessive solution cross-sectional photograph of the macula similar to the only bought in vivo histopathological sections. It provides an incredible improve within the diagnostics of retinal sickness. during this atlas the image of stratus OCT (Tm) in a variety of macular problems is helping to appreciate diagnosing and tracking the reaction to numerous treatments and interventions and discovering the proper healing procedure in a given sufferer. Its large software in prognosis, administration and follow-up of diabetic macular edema macular gap, taut posterior hyaloids membrane, vitreofoveal traction, idiopathic principal serous chorioretinopathy, submacular pathology and plenty of extra parts. This atlas is helping in effortless comprehension simply because case summaries, fundus pictures, fluorescein angiography and the OCT photos with followup software are supplied in regards to the sufferers. this can be an adjunctive device to probe the mysteries of retinal affliction. This quantity in ophthalmology provides rising applied sciences which are shaping the area of refractive surgical procedure. The readers will locate knowledgeable tips on excimer laser tools, wavefront expertise, the hot advances made to photograph ablation, refractive lens trade and others. A concise layout and diverse colour pictures support the reader to hone the scientific talents whereas imposing the most recent options. Plus a DVD that includes OCT photos permits the reader to check and select the main acceptable desktop for perform. · gains rationalization of surgical options mixed with top of the range illustrations that emphasize and light up key issues. · comprises execs and cons, pearls and pitfalls, and tips of the exchange for all ideas. · offers distinct insurance of the most surgical components in ophthalmic perform this present day. · deals a constant step by step method of each one technique. · Lists gear and instrumentation required for every methods in applicable stipulations. · makes use of full-color illustrations during the booklet. part ONE : advent TO OCT, 1. fundamentals of Optical Coherence Tomography, 2. means of buying OCT, three. collection of experiment Protocols, four. Interpretation of OCT test part : OCT styles IN a number of MACULAR illnesses, five. Diabetic Macular Edema, 6. Idiopathic significant Serous Chorioretinopathy (ICSC), 7. Macular gap, eight. Retinal Vascular Occlusions, nine. Retinal Vasculitis, 10. Epiretinal Membranes, eleven. Age-Related Macular Degeneration, 12. OCT in Choroidal Neovascular Membranes, thirteen. Juxtafoveal Telangiectasia, 14. Heredodystrophic issues, 15. Foveal Hemorrhage, sixteen. Photic Maculopathy, 17. Optic Disc Pits, 18. Inflammatory ailments of Retina-choroid, 19. Retinal Angiomatosis Proliferation, 20. Retinal Trauma, 21. Macular assessment following Retinal Detachment surgical procedure, 22. Intraocular Tumors, 23. Degenerative Myopia, 24. Postoperative Endophthalmitis, part 3: GLAUCOMA, 25. ideas of OCT Scanning in Glaucoma, 26. the conventional as opposed to Glaucomatous Optic Disc, 27. OCT within the scientific administration of Glaucoma, 28. Optical Coherence Tomography in Neuro-ophthalmology.
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Additional info for Atlas Optical Coherence Tomography of Macular Diseases and Glaucoma
14 Elevated nevus of the left upper eyelid in a middle-aged patient. Note no loss of eyelid margin architecture. Fig. 15 Nevus of the left upper eyelid. Note lashes growing through the nevus and spreading individual lashes apart. g. basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma) should be screened for in these patients Actinic Keratosis Fig. 16 Scaly plaque-like lesion on left lower eyelid. 39 Keratoacanthoma Key Facts • • • • • Rapidly developing lesion (weeks) Affects middle-aged to older patients Cause unknown, possibly trauma or sunlight exposure Historically was thought of as a benign lesion May represent low-grade squamous cell carcinoma Clinical Findings • Rapidly growing lesion with central crater ﬁlled with keratin and with rounded margins (Fig.
Dermal: solely in dermis Clinical Findings SECTION 2 • Disorders of the Eyelid: Lesions • Children: nevi usually ﬂat pigmented macules • This stage is junctional, usually appearing in adolescence • Middle-aged adults: elevated lesion, pigmented lesion compound stage. The pigment is slowly lost as the nevus ages (Fig. 14) • Older patients: • dermal stage • pigment usually lost • lesion appears elevated in a dome shape • A common location is the eyelid margin • Eyelid margin structures are not destroyed, as with carcinomas • Eyelashes grow out through the nevus but may lose their parallel orientation (Fig.
29 Advanced sebaceous cell carcinoma. (A) Ulceration and lid margin architecture loss with conjunctival spread. (B) Sebaceous material within the tumor appears yellow and may occur in a tigroid pattern at the eyelid margin or on the posterior surface of the tarsus. 53 Sebaceous Adenocarcinoma (Continued) Treatment • • • • No medical treatment Radiation therapy can be used as a palliative measure Incisional biopsy for diagnosis Map biopsies of areas peripheral to obviously involved tissue • These biopsies help estimate the extent of any pagetoid spread • Excisional biopsy with conﬁrmation of free surgical margins, using permanent sections, is necessary • Frozen sections are not reliable for evaluation of pagetoid spread • Reconstruction is performed using standard techniques • If conjunctival pagetoid spread is extensive or intraorbital involvement is present, exenteration is required Prognosis SECTION 2 • Disorders of the Eyelid: Lesions 54 • Cure rate is >90% if margins are free • Prognosis worsens dramatically if regional metastases present Fig.
Atlas Optical Coherence Tomography of Macular Diseases and Glaucoma by Vishali Gupta, Amod Gupta, Mangat Ram Dogra