By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, Committee on Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century
Chemistry and chemical engineering have replaced considerably because the Nineteen Nineties. they've got broadened their scope - into biology, nanotechnology, fabrics technology, computation and complex tools of method structures engineering and regulate - lots that the programmes in so much chemistry and chemical engineering departments now slightly resemble the classical suggestion of chemistry. "Beyond the Molecular Frontier" brings jointly study, discovery and invention around the whole spectrum of the chemical sciences - from primary, molecular-level chemistry to large-scale chemical processing know-how. This displays the best way the sector has advanced, the synergy at universities among learn and schooling in chemistry and chemical engineering, and how chemists and chemical engineers interact in undefined. The advancements in technological know-how and engineering in the course of the twentieth century have made it attainable to dream of recent ambitions that would formerly were thought of unthinkable. This ebook identifies the main possibilities and demanding situations for the chemical sciences, from simple examine to societal wishes and from terrorism defence to environmental safeguard, and it appears on the ways that chemists and chemical engineers can interact to give a contribution to a better destiny.
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Extra info for Beyond the Molecular Frontier: Challenges for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
For example, an enzyme might bind a natural L-amino acid but not the mirror image and thus distinguish the L -amino acids that human cells contain from the D-amino acids sometimes found in bacteria. The selective introduction of chirality is a problem of much current interest in synthesis, and it is generally solved by using the same concept that governs enzymatic reactions. The nonchiral substrate interacts with a chiral reagent or catalyst, and the selective conversion of the substrate to a chiral product follows.
This has opened great new opportunities. Within chemistry, synthetic chemists will increasingly make use of the special properties of metal-based catalysts, both solid and as soluble complexes, to devise new transformations that are selective and efficient. Chemical engineers are increasingly involved in product design, in addition to process design, requiring the integral participation of the chemical engineer in the molecular conception and design of the products. Physical chemists and chemical engineers will increasingly understand the surface chemistry and properties of solid catalysts; that understanding will help in the design of even better catalysts.
In addition, there is the desire for products, intermediates, solvents, catalysts, and other materials produced or selected for use in chemical manufacture to be as safe and nontoxic as possible during their use and to be recoverable or benignly degradable after their use. Also, by the very nature of chemical transformations, there are almost always unused chemicals remaining. These chemical leftovers include contaminants in the raw materials, incompletely converted raw materials, unavoidable coproducts, unselective reaction by-products, spent catalysts, and solvents.
Beyond the Molecular Frontier: Challenges for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, Committee on Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century